Archive for the ‘Green Patents’ category

New LED Litigation Lights Up Marshall, Texas: Nichia Sues Jiawei While Philips, Osram and VW Play Defense

December 9th, 2009


Three new light emitting diode (LED) patent infringement suits were filed last month, all in the Eastern District of Texas in Marshall.

In the first case, Japanese LED maker Nichia Corporation (Nichia) has accused Chinese solar products company Jiawei North America Inc. (Jiawei) of infringing four patents relating to LED technology.

According to Nichia’s bare bones complaint (nichia_complaint.pdf), Jiawei is infringing U.S. Patent Nos. 5,998,925 (‘925 Patent), 7,026,756 (‘756 Patent), 7,531,960 (‘960 Patent) and 6,870,191 (‘191 Patent).  The ‘925, ‘756 and ‘960 Patents are members of the same patent family.

The three related patents describe a light emitting diode (100) that minimizes deterioration in emission light intensity by including a phosphor in the coating resin (101) that covers the light emitting component (102).  The ‘756 Patent claims a garnet fluorescent material activated with cerium as the phosphor.


According to the ‘756 Patent, incorporating a phosphor in the LED reduces deterioration:

the phosphor used in the light emitting device has excellent resistance against light so that the fluorescent properties thereof experience less change even when used over an extended period of time while being exposed to light of high intensity.  This makes it possible to reduce the degradation of characteristics during long period of use and reduce deterioration due to light of high intensity emitted by the light emitting component . . . to provide a light emitting device which experiences less color shift and less luminance decrease.

In two lawsuits filed the same day, Light Transformation Technologies LLC (LTT), exclusive licensee of U.S. Patent No. 6,543,911 (‘911 Patent), has accused a host of lighting and electronics companies of infringing the ‘911 Patent.

One complaint (ltt_complaint1.pdf) lists 15 defendants including LEDdynamics, Philips, Osram Sylvania and Volkswagen.  The other complaint (ltt_complaint2.pdf) names Alliance Electronics and several others. 

The accused products include lenses, optics, lighting products and automobile lights that either allegedly infringe the ‘911 Patent or are designed for use with allegedly infringing products. 

The ‘911 Patent is entitled “Highly efficient luminaire having optical transformer providing precalculated angular intensity distribution and method therefore.”  The central innovation of the ‘911 Patent is an integrated omnidirectional light transformer (100) that includes an optical window (110) and a support (120).   


The light transformer (100) may have an aspherical reflective surface (130) and be incorporated into lighting assembly or luminaire (300) along with a light source (310), a shell (320), a connector (330) and a printed circuit board (340).  The light source (310), which may be an LED, emits light rays (350, 352) that are reflected in accordance with the curvature of the reflective surface (130). 


According to the ‘911 Patent, this design results in luminaire (300) having a luminous intensity higher at lower angles, and all light emitted by the light source will be directed in a predetermined pattern. 

In particular, the luminaire 300 can redirect the light so that illuminance at a long range distance (i.e. at the lower observation angles) will be equal to illuminance at a short range distance (i.e. at the higher observation angles).  Therefore, as a driver in a car approaches the luminaire 300, the driver can perceive light of equal intensity at long distances and at short distances from the luminaire 300.

Pyron Pioneers Solar Concentrators that Swim with the Fishes

December 5th, 2009


Pyron Solar Inc. (Pyron) is a San Diego company that develops and makes solar concentrators.

Pyron and San Diego Gas & Electric (SDG&E) recently announced that SDG&E is building a demonstration project to test Pyron’s patented concentrated solar power system.  The system uses shallow pools of water as a passive cooling system for high efficiency solar cells.

Pyron’s U.S. Patent No. 7,299,632 (‘632 Patent) is entitled “Solar electricity generator” and is directed to a solar electrical generator comprising a concentrator, a homogenizer and a photovoltaic (PV) cell.  The concentrator concentrates solar rays onto an entrance surface of the homogenizer, which is in turn attached to a PV cell.

The concentrators are positioned in troughs (1) that sit in bodies of water (5).  The water (5) acts as a passive coolant to disperse the heat generated by the PV cells.   

In addition, buoyancy torque created by pumping the water (5) between ballast compartment (8) and ballast compartment (9) and pressure differentials between the compartments pivots the troughs (1) to keep the lenses (2) aimed directly at the sun.


The lenses (2) concentrate solar rays (3) at focal spot (4).  According to the ‘632 Patent, the highly concentrated “pencil” of solar rays (3) then enter homogenizer (43) and are evenly distributed onto PV cell (4’) by loss-free total internal reflection.


According to the ‘632 Patent, this system makes better use of solar farm real estate by covering 87% of the set-aside land.  Pyron’s product description also touts the greater power production and reliability of its passive coolant design, noting that it protects the equipment from exposure to extreme wind. 

Pyron plans to stock the pools of water with fish to prevent mosquito infestation, leading Matter Network to speculate that “perhaps the fish farms of the future will double as solar energy collectors.”

More Settlements In and Out of Court for Litigious LED Professor

December 1st, 2009

In previous posts (e.g., here and here), I’ve written about Columbia Professor Emeritus and LED innovator Gertrude Neumark Rothschild’s string of successful settlement agreements and patent licensing deals. 

Earlier this month, Mitsubishi became the latest potential infringement target to take a license, when the Japanese conglomerate chose to settle out of court with Ms. Rothschild. 

According to IPLaw360, Rothschild granted Mitsubishi certain rights to U.S. Patent No. 5,252,499, entitled “Wide band-gap semiconductors having low bipolar resistivity and method of formation.”

The ‘499 patent is directed to methods of doping semiconductors, which means adding impurities to increase the number of free charge carriers.  Rothschild’s patented technology has had a major impact on LEDs by making production of green, blue and other short wavelength LEDs more economically viable.

The announcement of the Mitsubishi settlement comes at about the same time that Rothschild dropped her ITC charges against Toshiba and Panasonic upon reaching agreements with those companies (see info on the Toshiba ITC termination order here and the Panasonic order here).

According to her attorney, quoted here by CNBC, Rothschild has reached settlements or licensing agreements with more than 40 companies generating more than $27 million.  Some of those companies include LG Electronices, Motorola, Samsung, Sharp, Sony and Philips.

Green Patent Predictions: Law Firm Forecast Predicts Rise in Clean Tech Patents

November 24th, 2009

The Woodcock Washburn law firm recently released its 2009 Cleantech Patent Forecast, which predicts rising numbers of clean tech patents in the next few years.

The firm used a proprietary algorithm to predict future clean tech patent trends based on past and current trends in various clean tech sectors.  The sectors analyzed by the report are wind, solar, biofuels, hybrid-electric and fuel cells, all of which are predicted to see growth.

The projected growth in issued patents is as follows:

wind – from 236 in 2008 to almost 600 in 2012

hybrid-electric – from 743 in 2008 to over 1,400 in 2012

solar – from 363 in 2008 to over 900 in 2012

biofuels – from 140 in 2008 to 530 in 2012

fuel cells – from 723 in 2008 to 931 in 2011, down to 912 in 2012

According to the report, the relatively slow growth in fuel cell patents reflects the maturity of the sector compared to the other clean tech sectors.

Whether or not the forecasted stats turn out to be accurate, few would dispute the report’s predictions as to the general trajectory of green patents.

A123 Asks Appeals Court to Reinstate Home Court Advantage in Battery Patent Suit

November 20th, 2009


In April 2006 A123 Systems Inc. (A123), a Boston area lithium ion battery maker, brought a declaratory judgment action against Canadian utility Hydro-Quebec (H-Q) in federal court in Boston seeking declarations that A123 did not infringe U.S. Patent Nos. 5,910,382 (‘382 Patent) and 6,514,640 (‘640 Patent) and that the patents are invalid.  H-Q is the exclusive licensee of the ‘382 and ‘640 Patents.

The ‘382 and ‘640 Patents are entitled “Cathode materials for secondary (rechargeable) lithium batteries” and relate to host materials for use as electrodes in lithium ion batteries.  The patented materials provide a larger free volume for lithium ion motion that allows higher conductivity and therefore greater power densities.

In September 2006 A123 requested a stay of the Boston case pending the resolution of re-examination of the two patents in the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office (PTO).  The court dismissed the case without prejudice so the parties could subsequently move to reinstate it.

Also in September 2006, H-Q and the University of Texas (UT), which owns the ‘382 and ‘640 Patents, sued A123 for infringement of the patents in federal court in Texas.

This spring, after the PTO completed its re-examination of both patents, A123 asked the court in Boston to reopen its DJ action.  A123 argued that the Boston case should take precedence over the pending Texas action because it was the earlier filed case.

However, in a recent memorandum opinion (a123_memorandum.pdf) Judge Tauro of the U.S. District Court for the District of Massachusetts ruled that the Boston action could not be reinstated because A123 had failed to join the University of Texas.

Judge Tauro held that UT was a necessary party as the owner of the patents-in-suit because UT had not transferred all substantial rights in the patents to H-Q (the H-Q license contained some field of use restrictions).

Not only was UT not joined by A123, but UT could not be joined as a defendant in the Boston suit, the memorandum opinion held, because it is immune from suit.  Under the Eleventh Amendment, a federal court cannot hear a suit against a state without the state’s consent.

Last month A123 appealed (a123_notice_of_appeal.pdf) Judge Tauro’s order denying the motion to reopen the case (a123_order.pdf) to the Court of Appeals for the Federal Circuit (the appellate court that hears all patent appeals).

At least prior to A123’s appeal and Judge Tauro’s order, the Cleantech Litigation blog reported that the parties were trying to settle the suit. 

Akeena DJ and Infringement Action Aims to Ease Mounting Tension

November 12th, 2009


Akeena Solar is a Los Gatos, California solar installer and the owner of U.S. Patent No. 7,406,800 (‘800 Patent”), entitled “Mounting system for a solar panel” and directed to an integrated module frame and racking system for solar panels.

The ‘800 Patent describes a mounting system for a solar panel (100).  FIG. 2 shows three modules (102A-102C) coupled together to form an integrated system.  A splice (104e) mechanically connects one module to another and provides the electrical grounding connection between the solar modules.


In the example shown in FIG. 2B, an east-west splice (104) connects modules (102A and 102B).  The splice (104) is a tapered conductive metal to provide the grounding between modules and is grooved for easy screw insertion.  The splice (104) precisely aligns the modules and allows for compression of connector sockets to complete the electrical connection between adjacent modules.


According to the ‘800 Patent, the splice (104) provides several useful features, including mechanical rigidity between modules, an alignment method between modules and a grounding path that eliminates the need to run a grounding wire between the modules.

Last month, Akeena sued Zep Solar, Inc. (Zep), groSolar and High Sun Technology, Inc. (HST) in the Northern District of California. 

The complaint (akeena_complaint.pdf) contains two counts.  The first is against groSolar and HST for infringement of the ‘800 Patent.  According to the complaint, Zep’s solar panel mounting system infringes the ‘800 Patent, and groSolar has teamed up with Zep to distribute and install Zep systems.

The second claim is against Zep and HST for a declaratory judgment that Akeena does not infringe Zep’s U.S. Patent No. 7,592,537 (‘537 Patent), entitled “Method and apparatus for mounting photovoltaic modules.” 

The complaint bases DJ jurisdiction on a couple of e-mails between the parties.  Specifically, the complaint alleges that Zep sent an e-mail to Akeena’s counsel to bring the ‘537 Patent to its attention, and Zep’s CEO sent an e-mail to Akeena’s president regarding the ‘537 Patent and stating that “Zep’s legal team is ready for a fight if that is what is needed.”

Though solar installers don’t invest as heavily in IP as other players in the solar sector, it is an increasingly crowded field that may see more patent suits like this one in the future.

Biofilm, Bugs and Bioreactors: The IP Behind Coskata’s New Biofuel Facility

November 8th, 2009


In a previous post, I wrote about Coskata’s patent-pending ethanol production process.  The Illinois-based cellulosic ethanol company’s proprietary technology makes ethanol from various feedstocks by converting it to synthesis gas, or syngas, and then fermenting the gas using anaerobic microorganisms.

Coskata owns Patent Application Publication Nos. 2008/0305539 and 2008/0305540, directed to a membrane supported bioreactor system for converting syngas to biofuels (collectively “Bioreactor Applications”). 

According to the Bioreactor Applications, the disclosed processes boost efficiency by using one side of a membrane as the syngas contact surface and the opposite side as the surface for growing the microorganisms.  The gas is fed onto the contact side and transported through the membrane to a biofilm of anaerobic microorganisms, where it is fermented into biofuels.

Last month, Coskata opened a semi-commercial ethanol facility in Madison, Pennsylvania that makes ethanol using the company’s microorganisms and bioreactor technology.  According to the company’s press release, the flex facility will produce ethanol from numerous feedstocks, including wood biomass, agricultural waste, sustainable energy crops and construction waste.

To build the facility, Coskata teamed up with Westinghouse Plasma Corporation, which suppled the gasification technology for the project.

I had the opportunity to speak to Wes Bolsen, Coskata’s CMO, about the new facility, the company’s technology and the company’s IP.  He confirmed that the Pennsylvania facility uses Coskata’s patent-pending bioreactor technology.

Bolsen also told me that Coskata has patents directed to microorganisms used in the fermentation process, but that the company favors trade secret protection for some of the newer strains of “bugs,” including some of those used in the new facility.

According to Bolsen, Coskata “will continue with patents, trade secrets and whatever combination of the two” the company needs.  “Our IP is the core of this business,” he said.  “Our IP and innovation is what keeps us ahead in the industry.”

GreenShift-ing Focus to Pre-Grant Damages in Ethanol Processing Patent Suit

November 5th, 2009


GS CleanTech Corporation (GS), a wholly owned subsidiary of GreenShift Corporation, is a New York company that develops technology relating to energy efficient ethanol production processes.

GS owns U.S. Patent No. 7,601,858 (‘858 Patent), entitled “Method of processing ethanol byproducts and related subsystems” and directed to methods of recovering oil from byproducts of ethanol production.

Dry milling is a popular method of producing ethanol by fermentation of the starch in corn or other grains.  However, this method creates a waste stream comprised of byproducts called whole stillage.

According to the ‘858 Patent, whole stillage contains valuable oil but prior processes for recovering this oil have been expensive or inefficient.

GS’s patented method includes mechanically separating the whole stillage into distillers wet grains and thin stillage and then running the thin stillage into an evaporator to form a concentrated byproduct, or syrup.  The syrup is fed through a second centrifuge, which separates usable corn oil from the syrup.

The ‘858 Patent issued on October 13, 2009.  The same day, GS filed suit in federal court in Manhattan accusing New Jersey-based separator and decanter maker GEA Westfalia Separator, Inc. (Westfalia) and multiple as yet unnamed defendants of contributory infringement and inducing infringement of the ‘858 Patent. 

According to the complaint (greenshift-complaint.pdf), Westfalia sells centrifuges for corn oil extraction and directs its customers to use the methods taught in the ‘858 Patent.

Because the suit was filed upon patent issuance, GS’s recoverable damages are quite limited.  So GS is claiming provisional patent rights under Section 154(d) of the patent statute, which allows recovery of a reasonable royalty if the infringer had actual notice of the published patent application and the claims of the issued patent are substantially identical to the originally published claims.

This strategy demonstrates the importance of promptly notifying any potential infringers as soon as your patent application publishes, which is 18 months after filing in the U.S.

Thanks again to the Cleantech Litigation blog for the head’s up about this case.

KIPO Announces Super Speedy Green Patent App Exam

November 1st, 2009


The Korean Intellectual Property Office (KIPO) recently announced that green patent applications are now eligible for “super speed” examination that provides examination results in just one month.

The special examination procedure applies to patent applications directed to several categories of technologies relating to the environment or “low-carbon green growth.”

To qualify for the super speedy examination, green patent applicants must request that a prior art search be conducted by one of the three search agencies officially sanctioned by KIPO.

According to the KIPO press release (see 10/20/09 item), the super speed system was to start on October 1 and will cut the already quick Korean timeline “from application to acquire a patent” from an average of 18 months (or three months for preferential examinations) to a stunningly short period:

Using the superspeed examination system . . . the period can be slashed to less than a month, the fastest examination period in the world.

Thanks to Stu Soffer for bringing this news to my attention. 

Excluded Icon? ITC Opens Investigation Into Imported Toyota Hybrids

October 30th, 2009


In a previous post, I discussed the complaint filed by hybrid drivetrain technology company Paice LLC (Paice) against Toyota in the U.S. International Trade Commission (ITC). 

In the complaint (paice_itc_complaint.pdf), Paice alleged that Toyota’s importation of the third generation Prius, the Camry Hybrid, the Lexus HS250h and RX450h (Accused Products) infringe U.S. Patent No. 5,343,970 (‘970 Patent).

Earlier this month the ITC issued a Notice of Investigation announcing its decision to conduct an investigation into Paice’s allegations.

In a prior case in the Eastern District of Texas Paice won a jury verdict that the second generation Prius, the Highlander and the Lexus RX 400h infringed two claims of the ‘970 Patent under the doctrine of equivalents, and the verdict was affirmed on appeal (see my previous post about the verdict and appeal here). 

The court awarded Paice an ongoing royalty of $25 per infringing vehicle, which was later increased to $98.

In this ITC action, Paice asserts that Toyota is precluded from challenging the infringement, validity and enforceability of the ‘970 Patent because those issues were previously adjudicated. 

Paice also contends that the Accused Products infringe the ‘970 Patent because of alleged judicial admissions by Toyota that the drivetrains of the Accused Products are materially the same as those that were found to infringe the ‘970 Patent.

According to Paice, that leaves only issues relating to “domestic industry,” i.e., whether Paice has significantly invested in the patented technology in the U.S.  

This issue could be dispositive here.  Although licensing activity can suffice for domestic industry, it remains to be seen whether Paice’s court-imposed royalty arrangement with Toyota will be enough to meet this requirement.